Friday, July 25, 2014

Mitch McConnell Urges Myanmar To Reform Constitution

         Posted: Updated:

Saturday, July 19, 2014

တာခ်ီလိတ္ၿမိဳ႕ ဗိုလ္ခ်ဳပ္ေအာင္ဆန္း မိန္႔ခြန္းရြတ္ၿပိဳင္ပြဲ ပထမဆုရ ကေလးငယ္

ပထမဆုရ ေမာင္ေအာင္မ်ိဳးဦး (ဓါတ္ပံု - http://www.tachileik.net/2014/07/july18.html)

ေအာက္ပါ ေဖ့(စ္)ဘြတ္လင့္တြင္ သြားေရာက္ၾကည့္ရႈႏိုင္ပါသည္။

https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?v=266506450224684&set=vb.100005959929978&type=2&theater 


ဂ်ီဟတ္ကို ျမန္မာျပည္ ေခၚမသြင္းမိပါေစႏွင့္



     
၂၀၁၂ ခုႏွစ္ ပါကစၥတန္ ပက္ရွဝါရွိ ရဲစခန္းတခုကို တာလီဘန္အေသခံဗုံးခြဲသမားမ်ား ဝင္ေရာက္တိုက္ခိုက္အျပီး ျမင္ကြင္း (ဓာတ္ပံု – Reuters)

ကမၻာ့မွာ ႏိုင္ငံတကာအၾကမ္းဖက္ဝါဒ မ်က္ႏွာစာသစ္နဲ႔ ရင္ဆိုင္ေနရတဲ့အခ်ိန္မ်ိဳးမွာ ျမန္မာျပည္မွာ လူမ်ိဳးေရး အဓိက႐ုဏ္းေတြ ေပၚေပါက္ေနတာဟာ ေနာက္ဆက္တြဲ အက်ိဳးဆက္ေတြအတြက္ အလြန္စိုးရိမ္စရာ ေကာင္း ပါတယ္။

ျမန္မာျပည္ဟာ ႏိုင္ငံတကာ အၾကမ္းဖက္ဝါဒီ ေတြရဲ႕ ပစ္မွတ္ျဖစ္လာတာ ၾကာခဲ့ပါၿပီ။ ၁၉၇၀ ျပည့္ လြန္ႏွစ္ ေတြမွာ ဘင္လာဒင္ဆရာလို႔ သတ္မွတ္ၾကတဲ့ ပါလက္စတိုင္း ဂ်ီဟတ္ဝါဒီ အဗၺဒူလာ အာဇန္ရဲ႕ ပစ္မွတ္ ႏိုင္ငံျဖစ္ခဲ့ၿပီး အခုေနာက္ဆံုး အီရတ္ ISIL ဆြန္နီသူပုန္ေခါင္းေဆာင္ (အစၥလမၼစ္ႏိုင္ငံေတာ္ရဲ႕ အႀကီးအကဲလို႔ သူပုန္ေတြက တင္ေျမႇာက္ထားတဲ့) အာဘူဘာခါအယ္ဘာဟာဒီ မိန္႔ခြန္းထဲအထိ ျမန္မာ ျပည္က ပါဝင္ေနပါတယ္။

အိုစမာဘင္လာဒင္ရဲ႕ ဗီဒီယို  မိန္႔ခြန္းေတြ၊ အင္တာဗ်ဴးေတြမွာလည္း ျမန္မာျပည္မွာ မြတ္စလင္ေတြ ခ်ိဳးႏွိမ္ခံရတဲ့အေၾကာင္းေျပာဆိုခဲ့တယ္။ ၂၀ဝ၁ ခုႏွစ္မွာေျပာတဲ့ မိန္႔ခြန္းတခုမွာ အိုစမာဘင္လာဒင္က ျမန္မာျပည္မွာ ဂ်ီဟတ္အဖြဲ႕ခြဲ (jihadist cells) ရွိေနၿပီလို႔ဆိုခဲ့တယ္။ ေနာက္ပိုင္း အာဖဂန္နစၥတန္မွာ အေမရိကန္တပ္ေတြ ေခါင္းေဆာင္တဲ့ မဟာမိတ္ ေတြရဲ႕ စစ္ဆင္ေရးအတြင္း ဖမ္းမိတဲ့ ဗီဒီယိုတိပ္ေခြ ေတြ၊ ကြန္ပ်ဴတာေတြထဲမွာ ျမန္မာျပည္ဟာ အယ္ ကိုင္းဒါးအဖြဲ႕ကို စာနာတဲ့ ႏိုင္ငံေတြ စာရင္းထဲမွာ ထည့္ထားတဲ့ မွတ္တမ္းေတြကို ေတြ႕ခဲ့ရတယ္။

၂၀၁၂ ခုႏွစ္မွာ လူမ်ိဳးေရး အဓိက႐ုဏ္းေတြ ခပ္စိပ္စိပ္ ျဖစ္ခဲ့တဲ့ေနာက္မွာလည္း အယ္ကိုင္းဒါး၊ တာလီဘန္၊ ဂ်မား အစၥလာမီရာအဖြဲ႕ (JI) အဖြဲ႕ေတြ က မြတ္စလင္ ႐ိုဟင္ဂ်ာေတြအတြက္ လက္စားေခ်မယ္လို႔ ၿခိမ္းေျခာက္ ခဲ့တယ္။ ၂၀၁၃ ခုႏွစ္ ေမလမွာ ဂ်ကာတာမွာရွိတဲ့ ျမန္မာသံ႐ံုးကို တိုက္ခိုက္ဖို႔ႀကံစည္ တဲ့အမႈကို အင္ဒိုနီးရွားမွာ လံုၿခံဳေရးတပ္ဖြဲ႕ေတြက ေဖာ္ထုတ္ဖမ္းဆီးႏိုင္ခဲ့တယ္။ ဩဂုတ္လမွာ ဂ်ကာတာ မွာရွိတဲ့ ဘုန္းၾကီးေက်ာင္းကို တိုက္ခိုက္ခဲ့တယ္။

လတ္တေလာ အေျခအေနကိုၾကည့္ရင္ မႏၱေလး အဓိက႐ုဏ္းၿငိမ္သက္ခါစမွာပဲ မေလးရွားမွာ ျမန္မာေတြ ဆက္တိုက္အသတ္ခံရတယ္။ ဇူလိုင္လ ပထမ ၁၀ ရက္အတြင္း အသတ္ခံရတဲ့ ၄ ေယာက္ထဲမွာ ကြာလာလမ္ပူ နာေရးကူညီမႈအသင္း ဥကၠ႒လို လူမႈေရးကူညီေပးေနသူေတြကေန သာမန္ အလုပ္ သမားလည္း ပါဝင္ပါတယ္။ ၂၀၁၃ ခုႏွစ္ကလည္း လား႐ိႈးနဲ႔ မိတၳီလာၿမိဳ႕ေတြမွာ လူမ်ိဳးေရး အဓိက႐ုဏ္း ျဖစ္ေနတဲ့အခ်ိန္နဲ႔ မေရွးမေႏွာင္း မွာဘဲ မေလးရွားမွာ အနည္းဆံုး ျမန္မာ ၉ ဦးေသဆံုးခဲ့ၿပီး ၁၅ ေယာက္ ဒဏ္ရာရခဲ့တယ္လို႔ သတင္းေတြ ကဆိုတယ္။

ေမလထဲမွာလည္း ရခိုင္ျပည္နယ္ ေမာင္ေတာ နယ္စပ္မွာ ျမန္မာနယ္ျခားေစာင့္ ရဲတပ္ဖြဲ႕ ဆက္တိုက္ တိုက္ခိုက္ခံခဲ့ရတယ္။ ႐ိုဟင္ဂ်ာ ေသြးစည္း ညီၫြတ္ေရး အၾကမ္းဖက္အဖြဲ႕ (RSO) လက္ခ်က္ လို႔ ျမန္မာဘက္ကယူဆတယ္။ RSO အဖြဲ႕ဟာ ျမန္မာျပည္မွာရွိတဲ့ ႐ိုဟင္ဂ်ာေတြအေရးကို ေဆာင္ရြက္ဖို႔ စတင္ဖြဲ႕စည္းခဲ့ၿပီးေနာက္ပိုင္းမွာေတာ့ ျမန္မာ နဲ႔ ဘဂၤလားေဒ့ရွ္မွာရွိတဲ့ မြတ္စလင္ေတြကို စုစည္းၿပီး သီးျခားႏိုင္ငံထူေထာင္မယ့္ ရည္မွန္းခ်က္ရွိတဲ့ အဖြဲ႕ လို႔ ကြ်မ္းက်င္သူေတြကဆိုၾကတယ္။ ဘဂၤလားေဒ့ရွ္ ဘက္မွာ ဂ်မား အစၥလာမီရာအဖြဲ႕၊ ပါကစၥတန္၊ အာဖဂန္နစၥတန္ အေျခစိုက္တဲ့ ႏိုင္ငံတကာ အၾကမ္းဖက္အဖြဲ႕ေတြနဲ႔ အဆက္အစပ္ရွိတဲ့အဖြဲ႕လို႔ဆိုတယ္။

အခုအထိေတာ့ ျမန္မာျပည္က မြတ္စလင္ အမ်ားစုကေတာ့ ႏိုင္ငံတကာ အၾကမ္းဖက္ အဖြဲ႕ အစည္းေတြနဲ႔ ဆက္စပ္မိရင္ သူတို႔အေရးမွာေကာင္း က်ိဳးထက္ ဆိုးက်ိဳးေပးမယ္ဆိုတာကို နားလည္ထား ၾကပံုရပါတယ္။ ဥပမာ အခုေနာက္ဆံုး မႏၱေလးမွာ လူမ်ိဳးေရး အဓိက႐ုဏ္းမွာ ဂ်ီဟတ္ (ျမင့္ျမတ္တဲ့စစ္ပြဲ) အတြက္ လံႈ႔ေဆာ္ တရားေဟာတဲ့ ပုဂၢိဳလ္ေတြကို မႏၱေလးၿမိဳ႕ခံ မြတ္စလင္ေတြကပဲ ထိန္းသိမ္းတားျမစ္ခဲ့ တဲ့သတင္းေတြ ၾကားရပါတယ္။
ျမန္မာျပည္မွာ မြတ္စလင္လူဦးေရက ၄ ရာခိုင္ ႏႈန္းရွိမယ္လို႔ ခန္႔မွန္းၾကတယ္။ လူဦးေရ စုစုေပါင္းရဲ့ ၂၀ ရာခိုင္ႏႈန္း (၁၁ သန္း) ေလာက္အထိ ရွိမယ္လို႔ ခန္႔မွန္းတာလည္း ရွိပါတယ္။ အမ်ားစုက ဆြန္နီေတြ ျဖစ္ပါတယ္။ ျမန္မာျပည္မွာ အေျခခ်တဲ့ အခ်ိန္ ကာလအလိုက္ ၄ မ်ိဳးခြဲၾကပါတယ္၊ ပထမအသုတ္ က ၁၃ ရာစုေလာက္က ကုန္သည္ေတြ၊ တရား႐ံုးဝန္ ထမ္းေတြ၊ ေၾကးစား စစ္သားေတြအေနနဲ႔ ဝင္ေရာက္ ခဲ့ၾကၿပီး သူတို႔ကို  ပသီေတြ၊ ကုလားေတြလို႔ ေခၚပါ တယ္။ ျမန္မာအမ်ိဳးသမီးေတြနဲ႔ အိမ္ေထာင္က်တယ္။ သူတို႔ကဆင္းသက္လာသူေတြဟာ ျမန္မာမြတ္စလင္ ေတြျဖစ္ၿပီး ျမန္မာ့လူ႔အဖြဲ႕အစည္းနဲ႔ ယဥ္ေက်းမႈအရ၊ ဘာသာစကားအရ ေပါင္းစည္းသြားတဲ့ အုပ္စုေတြ ျဖစ္ပါတယ္။

ဒုတိယအုပ္စုကေတာ့ တ႐ုတ္ႏြယ္ မြတ္စလင္ ပန္းေသးအုပ္စုေတြပါ။ ၁၃ ရာစုေလာက္ကစၿပီး ျမန္မာျပည္မွာ အေျခခ်ၿပီး ၁၉ ရာစုမွာ တ႐ုတ္ျပည္ ယူနန္ျပည္နယ္ထဲက ႏိုင္ငံေရး မၿငိမ္သက္မႈေတြေၾကာင့္ အလံုးအရင္းနဲ႔ ဝင္လာၿပီး အေျခခ်ခဲ့တဲ့အုပ္စု ပါ။ ပန္းေသးေတြကလည္း ျမန္မာမြတ္စလင္ေတြလိုပဲ ျမန္မာ့လူ႔အဖြဲ႕အစည္းနဲ႔ အကြ်မ္းတဝင္ သဟဇာတ ျဖစ္ေနၿပီ။

တတိယအုပ္စုကေတာ့ အဂၤလိပ္ က်ဴးေက်ာ္စစ္ သံုးႀကိမ္ (၁၈၂၆၊ ၁၈၅၂၊ ၁၈၈၅) နဲ႔ အိႏၵိယတိုက္ငယ္ ကေန ပါလာတဲ့ အုပ္စုေတြပါ။ စီးပြားေရးသမားေတြ၊ အရာရွိေတြ၊ အလုပ္သမားေတြအေနနဲ႔ အလံုးအရင္း နဲ႔ ဝင္ေရာက္ ခဲ့ၾကပါတယ္။ ဒုတိယကမၻာစစ္ မတိုင္ ခင္အထိ ျမန္မာျပည္ မြတ္စလင္ေတြထဲမွာအမ်ားဆံုး၊ ရန္ကုန္လူဦးေရမွာ လႊမ္းမိုးခဲ့တာ ဒီအုပ္စုပါပဲ။ ၁၉၄၂ ဂ်ပန္အဝင္နဲ႔ ၁၉၆၂ ခုႏွစ္ ဗိုလ္ခ်ဳပ္ေနဝင္း တက္လာၿပီး ျပည္သူပိုင္သိမ္းတာနဲ႔ ႏိုင္ငံသားဥပေဒ သစ္ျပ႒ာန္းလိုက္တဲ့ ေနာက္ပိုင္းမွာ ေတာ္ေတာ္မ်ား မ်ား ျမန္မာျပည္ကို စြန္႔ခြာခဲ့ၾကပါတယ္။

ေနာက္ဆံုးအုပ္စုကေတာ့ ႐ိုဟင္ဂ်ာလို႔ေၾကညာ ၾကတဲ့ အုပ္စုေတြပါ။ လူဦးေရ ၈ သိန္းေလာက္အထိ ရွိမယ္လို႔ ခန္႔မွန္းၾကပါတယ္။ ရခိုင္ျပည္မွာ အမ်ားစု ျဖစ္ၿပီး ရန္ကုန္မွာလည္း ေတာ္ေတာ္မ်ားမ်ား ရွိပါတယ္။ ေတာင္အာရွ သားေတြျဖစ္ၿပီး ဘဂၤါလီ ဘာသာစကား တမ်ိဳးကို ေျပာၾကပါတယ္။ ဒီအုပ္စုကေတာ့ နာမည္ သာမက သမိုင္း ေၾကာင္းေနာက္ခံမွာလည္း အျငင္း ပြားစရာေတြ ရွိပါတယ္။ တခ်ိဳ႕က ၁၅ ရာစုေလာက္ ရခိုင္ဘုရင္ေတြေခတ္က တည္ရွိခဲ့တယ္လို႔ ဆိုၾက တယ္။ အဂၤလိပ္ေခတ္မွာ ျမန္မာျပည္ဘက္ကိုေျပာင္း ေရႊ႔အေျခခ်တဲ့ အုပ္စုေတြ၊ ၁၉၄၅ ခုႏွစ္ ေနာက္ပိုင္း ႏွစ္ေတြက်မွ အေရွ႕ပါကစၥတန္က သဘာဝကပ္ ေဘးေၾကာင့္ ေျပာင္းေရႊ႕အေျခခ် သူေတြ၊ ၁၉၇၁ ဘဂၤလားေဒ့ရွ္ လြတ္လပ္ေရးတိုက္ပြဲကာလမွာ စစ္ေဘး ေရွာင္ ဒုကၡသည္ေတြ စသျဖင့္ မ်ိဳးစံုပါဝင္ပါတယ္။

ဆိုခဲ့တဲ့အတိုင္း မြတ္စလင္အုပ္စု ၄ စုထဲက ပထမအုပ္စု ၂ ခုက လူမ်ားစုျမန္မာေတြနဲ႔ တသား တည္းလိုၿဖစ္ၿပီး က်န္တဲ့အုပ္စုေတြကေတာ့ သူစိမ္း ေတြလိုျဖစ္ေနတယ္။ ျမန္မာျပည္ လြတ္လပ္ေရးရတဲ့ အခ်ိန္ကစလို႔ မြတ္စလင္ေတြဟာ ႏိုင္ငံသား အခြင့္ အေရးေတြ တစတစနဲ႔ ကန္႔သတ္ခံခဲ့ရတယ္။

အထူးသျဖင့္ ၁၉၈၂ ခုႏွစ္ ႏိုင္ငံသားျဖစ္ခြင့္ ဥပေဒအရ ပထမ အဂၤလိပ္က်ဴးေက်ာ္စစ္ ၁၈၂၃ ခုႏွစ္မတိုင္ခင္ ျမန္မာ့ေျမေပၚမွာအေျခခ်တဲ့ ဘိုးဘြား ေတြရဲ႕ အဆက္အႏြယ္ေတြကိုပဲ ျမန္မာႏိုင္ငံသား အျဖစ္သတ္မွတ္ၿပီး ေနာက္မွဝင္လာတဲ့ မြတ္စလင္ အုပ္စုေတြကို ႏိုင္ငံျခားသားအေနနဲ႔ပဲ ခြဲျခားထား လိုက္ပါတယ္။ ႏိုင္ငံျခားသား ေတြဟာ စစ္တပ္နဲ႔ ရဲတပ္ဖြဲ႕မွာ စစ္မႈထမ္းခြင့္ မရွိ၊ အစိုးရဌာနေတြမွာ တာဝန္ထမ္းေဆာင္ ခြင့္မျပဳေတာ့ပါဘူး။ ေခတ္ အလိုက္ေျပာမယ္ဆိုရင္ ဦးႏုေခတ္မွာ မြတ္စလင္ေတြ ကို အတိုင္းအတာတခုအထိ ေနရာေပးခဲ့ၿပီး ၁၉၆၂ စစ္တပ္အာဏာသိမ္းတဲ့ေနာက္ပိုင္း ကန္႔သတ္လာ လိုက္တာ ၁၉၈၈ ေနာက္ပိုင္း စစ္အစိုးရေခတ္မွာ ပိုဆိုး သြားပါတယ္။

သမိုင္းမွာ ျပန္ၾကည့္ရင္လည္း ျမန္မာျပည္မွာ “ကုလား-ဗမာ အဓိက႐ုဏ္း” နဲ႔ကင္းတဲ့ အခ်ိန္ကာလ ရယ္လို႔ ရွားပါတယ္။ မျဖစ္ဖူးတဲ့ ေဒသရယ္လို႔လည္း ရွားရွားပါပါးပါပဲ။ လြတ္လပ္ေရးမရခင္ ၁၉၃၀ တဝိုက္က ျမန္မာျပည္မွာ “ကုလား” လူဦးေရတိုးၿပီး စီးပြားေရးမွာ လႊမ္းမိုးလာတာကို အေၾကာင္းျပဳလို႔ အဓိက႐ုဏ္း စတင္ခဲ့တယ္။ ေနာက္ပိုင္းမွာေတာ့ လူမ်ိဳးေရး အဓိက႐ုဏ္း ေျပာင္းသြားပါတယ္။ ဦးႏု အစိုးရေခတ္မွာေရာ၊ ဦးေနဝင္းေခတ္မွာပါ အဓိက႐ုဏ္းေတြျဖစ္ခဲ့တယ္။ ဗလီေတြ၊ ေဈး ဆိုင္ေတြ၊ ေက်ာင္းေတြ၊ အိမ္ေတြ ဖ်က္ဆီးခံရတယ္။ ၁၉၈၀ ျပည့္လြန္ႏွစ္ေတြအထိ ဆက္ရွိခဲ့ပါတယ္။

၁၉၈၈ ခုႏွစ္မွာ စစ္တပ္က အာဏာသိမ္းတက္ လာတဲ့ အခ်ိန္ကစလို႔ လံုၿခံဳေရးကို ၾကပ္ၾကပ္မတ္မတ္ ေစာင့္ၾကည့္ခဲ့ေပမယ့္ အဓိက႐ုဏ္းေတြက ရပ္မသြား ပါဘူး။ တခ်ိဳ႕ကိစၥေတြမွာ အစိုးရက လူေတြကိုအာ႐ံု လႊဲခ်င္လို႔ တမင္ကို ရည္ရြယ္ခ်က္ရွိရွိ ဖန္တီးခဲ့တယ္ လို႔ ေလ့လာသူေတြက ဆိုၾကတယ္။ ဥပမာအေနနဲ႔ မႏၱေလးၿမိဳ႕ထဲကို တ႐ုတ္ေတြ အလံုးအရင္းနဲ႔ ဝင္ေန တာကို မေက်မနပ္ျဖစ္လာတာကိုအာ႐ံုလႊဲဖို႔ မြတ္စလင္ မုန္းတီးေရးနဲ႔ လွည့္တိုက္ေပးခဲ့တာမ်ိဳး ၁၉၉၇ ခုႏွစ္ မွာလည္း ျဖစ္ခဲ့ပါတယ္။

ဒီလိုပဲ ၂၀ဝ၁ ခုႏွစ္မွာလည္း စစ္ေတြ၊ ေတာင္ငူ၊ ျပည္ၿမိဳ႕တို႔မွာ အဓိက႐ုဏ္းေတြ ေပၚေပါက္ခဲ့တယ္။ မြတ္စလင္ေတြပိုင္တဲ့ ပစၥည္းေတြ ဖ်က္ဆီးခံေပမယ့္ ရက္ၾကာတဲ့အထိ အစိုးရက မတားဆီးေပးခဲ့ပါဘူး။ ျဖစ္စဥ္တိုင္း အစိုးရ ေထာက္လွမ္းေရးေတြ၊ အစိုးရ ေက်ာေထာက္ေနာက္ခံ ေပးထားတဲ့အဖြဲ႕အစည္းေတြ က ၾကားကဝင္ဆြေပးတာမ်ိဳး၊ ဘုန္းႀကီးေယာင္ေဆာင္ ၿပီး လံႈ႔ေဆာ္တာမ်ိဳး ရွိခဲ့တယ္လို႔ စြပ္စြဲတာေတြလည္း ရွိခဲ့တယ္။

ႏိုင္ငံတကာ အေျခအေနေၾကာင့္ ျဖစ္လာတဲ့ ဂယက္ေတြလည္း ရွိပါတယ္၊ ဥပမာ ၂၀ဝ၁ ခုႏွစ္ မတ္လ ေလာက္မွာ အာဖဂန္နစၥတန္မွာ တာလီဘန္ ေတြက ဗုဒၶ႐ုပ္တုကို ဖ်က္ဆီးခဲ့တဲ့အခ်ိန္မွာ ဗုဒၶ ဘာသာဝင္ေတြက စိုးရိမ္သြားတယ္။ အဲဒီအျဖစ္ အပ်က္ ႐ုပ္ပံုေတြကို ျပည္ေထာင္စု ႀကံ့ခိုင္ေရးနဲ႔ ဖြံ႔ၿဖိဳးေရးအသင္းရဲ႕ လူေတြ ကျဖန္႔ေဝၿပီး အမုန္းမီးကို ဆြေပးခဲ့တာမ်ိဳးလည္း ရွိတယ္။ မြတ္စလင္ေတြဟာ ျမန္မာအမ်ိဳးသမီးေတြကိုယူၿပီး ျမန္မာျပည္ကို အစၥလာမၼစ္ႏိုင္ငံ ေျပာင္းပစ္မယ္ဆိုတဲ့ ဝါဒျဖန္႔မႈေတြ ကလည္း တေလွ်ာက္လံုး ရွိခဲ့ပါတယ္။ မြတ္စလင္ ဆန္႔က်င္ေရး စာရြက္စာတမ္းေတြ၊ တရားေဟာတဲ့ တရားတိပ္ေခြေတြလည္း တကၠသိုလ္နယ္ေျမ ကေန ေက်းလက္ေတာရြာေတြအထိ ပ်ံ႕ႏွံ႔ခဲ့ပါတယ္။ ၂၀ဝ၁ စက္တင္ဘာအၾကမ္းဖက္မႈ ေနာက္ပိုင္းမွာ အၾကမ္း ဖက္ဝါဒ ဆန္႔က်င္ေရး စစ္ပြဲနဲ႔အတူ ျမန္မာျပည္မွာ အစြန္းေရာက္အၾကမ္းဖက္ဝါဒအႏၱရာယ္ကို စိုးရိမ္မႈ ေတြျမင့္တက္ခဲ့ျပီး ျပည္တြင္းက မြတ္စလင္ေတြ အေပၚ မယံုသကၤာစိတ္ေတြ ပိုဆိုးသြားခဲ့တယ္။

ျမန္မာျပည္မွာ မြတ္စလင္သူပုန္ထမႈကိုၾကည့္ရင္ ၁၉၄၅ ေလာက္အထိ ေျခရာျပန္ေကာက္ရပါမယ္။ ရခိုင္ေဒသ မွာ မြတ္စလင္ သူပုန္အုပ္စုအမ်ိဳးမ်ိဳး ေပၚလာလိုက္၊ ေပ်ာက္သြားလိုက္ပါပဲ။ ဒုတိယကမၻာ စစ္အၿပီးမွာ တခ်ိဳ႕ မြတ္စလင္ေတြက ရခိုင္ျပည္နယ္ ထဲက အစိတ္အပိုင္းေတြကို အဲဒီအခ်ိန္က အသစ္ ထူေထာင္ခါစ အေရွ႕ ပါကစၥတန္နဲ႔ ေပါင္းစည္းေရး အတြက္ သူပုန္ထခဲ့ၾကတယ္။

မူဂ်ာဟစ္လို႔ေခၚတဲ့အဖြဲ႕က ရခိုင္ျပည္နယ္ထဲက ကုလားတန္ျမစ္နဲ႔ ေမယုျမစ္ (မယူျမစ္) ေတြၾကားက နယ္ေျမ ကို လြတ္လပ္တဲ့ မြတ္စလင္ ႏိုင္ငံေတာ္ကို ထူေထာင္ခ်င္တယ္။ လြတ္လပ္ေရးရခါစမွာ ဗဟို အစိုးရက တိုင္းရင္း သား သူပုန္ေတြဘက္ကို ဖိတိုက္ ေနရတဲ့အခ်ိန္မွာ မူဂ်ာဟစ္ သူပုန္ေတြ အင္အားႀကီး ထြားခဲ့တယ္။

၁၉၅၀ ျပည့္ေႏွာင္းပိုင္းမွာ မူဂ်ာဟစ္သူပုန္အဖြဲ႕ ၿပိဳကြဲသြားခဲ့တဲ့ေနာက္ပိုင္း မြတ္စလင္ သူပုန္ေတြ အဖြဲ႕မ်ိဳးစံု ေပၚေပါက္ခဲ့ေပမယ့္ အင္အားမေကာင္း ေတာ့ပါဘူး။ ဒီထဲက ၁၉၆၃ မွာ ေပၚေပါက္ခဲ့တဲ့ ႐ိုဟင္ဂ်ာ လြတ္လပ္ေရး တပ္ (RIF)၊ ၁၉၇၄ ခုႏွစ္မွာ ဖြဲ႕စည္းခဲ့တဲ့ ႐ိုဟင္ဂ်ာ မ်ိဳးခ်စ္တပ္ဦး (RPF) တို႔မွာ မူဂ်ာဟစ္ သူပုန္ေဟာင္းေတြ၊ အဲဒီအခ်ိန္က မြတ္စလင္ ေသြးစည္းညီၫြတ္ေရး လႈပ္ရွားမႈ (Pan-Islamic Movement) ကို အားက်တဲ့ လူေတြနဲ႔ ဖြဲ႕စည္းခဲ့တာ ျဖစ္ပါတယ္။

ေနာက္ပိုင္းႏွစ္ေတြမွာလည္း မြတ္စလင္ သူပုန္ အဖြဲ႕ငယ္မ်ိဳးစံု ေပၚေပါက္ခဲ့ပါတယ္။ ေမလထဲမွာ လည္း ရခိုင္ျပည္နယ္ ေမာင္ေတာနယ္စပ္မွာ ျမန္မာ နယ္ျခားေစာင့္ ရဲတပ္ဖြဲ႕ကို တိုက္ခိုက္ခဲ့တဲ့ ႐ိုဟင္ဂ်ာ ေသြးစည္းညီၫြတ္ေရး အၾကမ္းဖက္အဖြဲ႕ (RSO) ကေတာ့ ႐ိုဟင္ဂ်ာမ်ိဳးခ်စ္တပ္ဦး (RPF) အဖြဲ႕ကေန ခြဲထြက္လာတဲ့ အဖြဲ႕ျဖစ္ပါတယ္။ ၁၉၈၂ ခုႏွစ္မွာ ဖြဲ႕စည္းခဲ့ပါတယ္။

မြတ္စလင္ သူပုန္တပ္ဖြဲ႕ေတြ ေပၚေပါက္တဲ့ သမိုင္းကိုၾကည့္ရင္ မြတ္စလင္ေတြ ဖိႏွိပ္ခံရမႈရဲ႕ ေနာက္ဆက္တြဲ ျဖစ္ေနတာကို ေတြ႕ႏိုင္ပါတယ္။ ဥပမာ ၁၉၇၀ တဝိုက္က အထက္ျမန္မာျပည္မွာ မြတ္စလင္ဆန္႔က်င္ေရး လႈပ္ရွားမႈေတြရဲ႕ ေနာက္ ဆက္တြဲအျဖစ္ မြတ္စလင္ေတြကိုစည္း႐ံုးၿပီး ပုန္ကန္ ဖို႔ရည္ရြယ္ခ်က္နဲ႔ မႏၱေလးမွာပဲ (Ommat Liberation Front) ဆိုတဲ့အဖြဲ႕ ေပၚခဲ့တယ္။ ၁၉၈၀ တဝိုက္က ေမာ္လၿမိဳင္၊ မုတၲမ၊ ဧရာဝတီ ျမစ္ဝကြ်န္း ေပၚေဒသမွာ ကုလား-ဗမာ အဓိက႐ုဏ္းေတြရဲ႕ အဆက္အျဖစ္ ေကာ္သူေလး မြတ္စလင္လြတ္ေျမာက္ ေရးတပ္ (KMLF) ေပၚခဲ့တယ္။ လူအင္အား ၂၀ဝ ေလာက္နဲ႔ ထိုင္းျမန္မာ နယ္စပ္မွာ လႈပ္ရွားခဲ့ၿပီး ကရင္အမ်ိဳးသား  လြတ္ေျမာက္ေရး  တပ္မေတာ္ (KNLA) ကလည္း အေထာက္အပံ့ေပးခဲ့တယ္။

ဒီေန႔အထိ က်န္ေနတဲ့အဖြဲ႕က ႐ိုဟင္ဂ်ာ ေသြး စည္းညီၫြတ္ေရး အၾကမ္းဖက္အဖြဲ႕ (RSO) ျဖစ္ပါ တယ္။ ဒီအဖြဲ႕ဟာ ႏိုင္ငံတကာ အၾကမ္းဖက္ အဖြဲ႕ အစည္းေတြနဲ႔ အခ်ိတ္အဆက္ရွိတယ္လို႔ ကြ်မ္းက်င္ သူေတြကဆိုၾကတယ္။ အာဖဂန္နစၥတန္မွာ အေမရိကန္ ေခါင္းေဆာင္တဲ့ မဟာမိတ္တပ္ေတြက ဖမ္းမိခဲ့တဲ့ တာလီဘန္ တပ္သားေတြထဲမွာ (RSO) အဖြဲ႕ဝင္ တခ်ိဳ႕ပါဝင္ေနတယ္။ ျမန္မာျပည္မွာ တိုက္ပြဲမဝင္ခင္ မွာ အာဖဂန္နစၥတန္မွာ စစ္ေရးအေတြ႕အႀကံဳ ယူေန တယ္လို႔ဆိုတယ္။

ဒီမတိုင္ခင္ ႏွစ္ေတြကတည္းက RSO အဖြဲ႕ကို ဘဂၤလားေဒ့ရွ္ ျမန္မာနယ္စပ္က စခန္းေတြမွာ တာလီဘန္ ေတြက စစ္ေရး ေလ့က်င့္ေပးခဲ့ပံုရတဲ့ ဗီဒီယိုမွတ္တမ္းေတြလည္း ဖမ္းမိခဲ့တယ္။ ဒီအျဖစ္ အပ်က္ေတြနဲ႔ အိုစမာဘင္လာဒင္ မိန္႔ခြန္းထဲမွာပါတဲ့ ျမန္မာျပည္မွာ ဂ်ီဟတ္အဖြဲ႕ခြဲ (jihadist cells) ရွိေနၿပီဆိုတဲ့အခ်က္ကို ဆက္စပ္စဥ္းစားႏိုင္ပါတယ္။

အေရွ႕ေတာင္အာရွေဒသထဲမွာ အတည္မျပဳႏိုင္ တဲ့ ျမင့္ျမတ္ေသာ စစ္သည္ေတာ္မ်ား အဖြဲ႕ခ်ဳပ္ဆိုတဲ့ အဖြဲ႕ကိုအစြန္းေရာက္ မြတ္စလင္ေတြကို ဖြဲ႕စည္း ထားၿပီးဒီအဖြဲ႕ရဲ႕အစည္းအေဝးေတြ (၁၉၉၉၊၂၀ဝ၀) မွာ ျမန္မာျပည္က ကိုယ္စားလွယ္တက္ေရာက္ခဲ့တဲ့ မွတ္တမ္းေတြလည္း ရွိတယ္လို႔ဆိုတယ္။ အေရွ႕ေတာင္အာရွ ေဒသက အယ္ကိုင္းဒါး ေခါင္းေဆာင္ တေယာက္ျဖစ္တဲ့ အိုမာအယ္ဖာရြတ္ရဲ႕ ေျဖာင့္ခ်က္ ေတြထဲမွာ အယ္ကိုင္းဒါးနဲ႔ႏႊယ္တဲ့ ဂ်မားအစၥလာမီရာ (JI) အဖြဲ႕ဟာ ျမန္မာျပည္ဘက္က မြတ္စလင္ သူပုန္ေတြနဲ႔ ခ်ိတ္ဆက္ဖို႔ ႀကိဳးစားခဲ့တယ္ဆိုတာပါ တယ္။

အၾကမ္းဖက္ဝါဒ ဆန္႔က်င္ေရး အရာရွိေတြ၊ သတင္းမီဒီယာေတြမွာလည္း ျမန္မာျပည္မွာ ဂ်ီဟတ္ အဖြဲ႕ခြဲ (jihadist cells) ရွိႏိုင္တဲ့ ခန္႔မွန္းခ်က္ေတြ အေတာ္မ်ားမ်ား ရွိပါတယ္။ ခိုင္လံုတဲ့ အေထာက္ အထား မရွိေပမယ့္ ေပါ့ေလ်ာ့သင့္တဲ့ ကိစၥေတြေတာ့ မဟုတ္ပါဘူး။ တဖက္မွာ ဒီလိုကိစၥမ်ိဳးေတြကို အေကာက္အယူ လြဲမွားတာမ်ိဳး၊ လြန္လြန္က်ဴးက်ဴး တံု႔ျပန္တာမ်ိဳးဟာ အႏၱရာယ္ရွိပါတယ္။ အစြန္း ေရာက္ အၾကမ္းဖက္သမားေတြနဲ႔ ႐ိုး႐ိုးသား သား သာမန္မြတ္စလင္ေတြကိုလည္း ခြဲျခားဖို႔လိုပါတယ္။

ျမန္မာျပည္မွာ ေခတ္အဆက္ဆက္ မြတ္စလင္ သူပုန္ထမႈေတြ အင္အားႀကီးထြား မလာတာဟာ ၿငိမ္းခ်မ္းစြာ ေနလိုတဲ့ မြတ္စလင္ လူမ်ားစုႀကီးနဲ႔ ဆိုင္ ပါတယ္။ တခ်ိန္တည္းမွာ ဘယ္လူမ်ိဳး၊ ဘယ္တိုင္းရင္း သားမွာမဆို အစြန္းေရာက္အုပ္စုေတြ ရွိႏိုင္တာကို လည္း သတိထားဖို႔လိုပါတယ္။ မြတ္စလင္ေတြမွာေရာ ဗုဒၶဘာသာဝင္ ေတြမွာလည္း ရွိႏိုင္ပါတယ္၊ ရွိေနပါ တယ္။

ျပႆနာကို မီးေမႊးတဲ့ လက္တဆုပ္စာ အစြန္း ေရာက္ေတြကို အင္အားမႀကီးထြားလာေအာင္ ျပတ္ျပတ္ သားသား တားဆီးဖို႔လိုပါတယ္။ တဖက္မွာ သူတို႔ကိုစာနာသူေတြ၊ ပူးေပါင္းလိုသူေတြ ပိုမ်ားလာႏိုင္တဲ့ လုပ္ရပ္မ်ိဳးေတြကို ေရွာင္ရွားၾကဖို႔ လိုပါတယ္။

ဒီေန႔ ႏိုင္ငံတကာ အေျခအေနကိုၾကည့္ရင္ ေလာေလာဆယ္ အီရတ္နဲ႔ ဆီရီးယား နယ္စပ္မွာ ဆြန္နီသူပုန္ေတြ အင္အားႀကီးထြားလာတာနဲ႔အတူ အေမရိကန္နဲ႔ ဥေရာပ အေနာက္ႏိုင္ငံေတြသာမက မေလးရွား၊ အင္ဒိုနီးရွား စတဲ့ ေဒသတြင္းႏိုင္ငံေတြမွာ လည္း အစြန္းေရာက္သမားေတြရဲ႕ အႏၱရာယ္အေပၚ စိုးရိမ္မႈေတြ ျမင့္တက္ေနပါ တယ္။ ကမၻာ့အရပ္ရပ္က ဆြန္နီသူပုန္ေတြဆီကိုစာနာသူေတြကလည္း အီရတ္ ေရွ႕တန္းစစ္ေျမျပင္အထိသြားၿပီး စစ္ကူတိုက္ေပးေန ၾကတာလည္း ရွိပါတယ္။ ဒီထဲမွာ အယ္လ္ကိုင္းဒါးနဲ႔ ပူးေပါင္းတိုက္ပြဲဝင္ခဲ့ဖူးတဲ့  RSO အဖြဲ႕ ဝင္ေတြ မပါ ဝင္ဘူးလို႔ ဘယ္သူမွမေျပာႏိုင္ပါဘူး။ ဒီတိုက္ခိုက္ ေရးသမားေတြ မိခင္တိုင္းျပည္ဆီ ျပန္လာရင္ အခ်ိန္ မေရြး အႏၱရာယ္ေပးႏိုင္တာကို သက္ဆိုင္ရာ အစိုးရ ေတြက ေခါင္းခဲၿပီး ႀကိဳတင္ကာကြယ္ႏိုင္ဖို႔ လံုၿခံဳေရး အစီအမံသစ္ေတြ လုပ္ေနၾကတယ္။

ဒီအခ်ိန္မ်ိဳးမွာ ျမန္မာျပည္မွာေတာ့ ႏိုင္ငံေရး ေအာက္လမ္းသမားေတြနဲ႔ မ်က္ကန္းမ်ိဳးခ်စ္ေတြက တမင္ဖန္တီး ပံုရတဲ့ လူမ်ိဳးေရး အဓိက႐ုဏ္းေတြ ေပၚေပါက္ေနတယ္။ အျပင္ဘက္က အႏၱရာယ္ကို ဖိတ္ေခၚ႐ံုသာမက ျပည္တြင္းက အစြန္းေရာက္ သမားေတြကို အင္အားစုရလြယ္ေအာင္ အေျခအေန ေတြဖန္တီးေပးရာ ေရာက္ တယ္ဆိုတာကို မ်က္ကန္း တေစၦမေၾကာက္သမားေတြ သိမွသိပါေလစ။

(ညီေစာလြင္သည္ ျမန္မာ့အေရးႏွင့္ ကမာၻ႔ေရးရာ သံုးသပ္ခ်က္မ်ားကို ေရးသားေနသူ ျဖစ္သည္။ ထိုင္းႏိုင္ငံ ခ်င္းမိုင္ၿမိဳ႕တြင္ လတ္တေလာ ေနထိုင္သည္။)

ရည္ညႊန္း - 


 

Saturday, January 11, 2014


Thailand should learn something from its’ neighboring Asean-countries

Thailand’s a great country and all of the people are good-hearted and willing to help each other except the most of politicians. There’re about twenty-nine parties in the country including defunct and dissolved or banned and five-hundred from eleven parties out of twenty-nine were representing in the House of Representatives until the day Thailand first-female Prime Minister, Yingluck Shinawatra dissolved the nation's parliament on December 9, 2013 shortly after calling for unity by Thai King, Bhumibol Adulyadej on his birthday.

Thailand politic is like a tug of war contest, sort of sports in ancient Egypt, Greece and China once by two side; Yinkluck and Suthep. When one looses on timing, it hurts the team. Recent shutdown plan is putting more pressure to Yingluck and possibly wasting 2.5 to 5 billion baht per week. Color war won’t stop ever if you don’t learn the peace process from previous mistakes, history and other countries. It’ll always continue and loop in other form of “Old wine in a new bottle.” The worst, most-notorious civil violence in Thailand history was happened in 2010 and people had whipped experiences. Thaksin ruined everything in Thailand during his administration.

Aung Saun Suu Kyi, nobel peace prize laureates in Burma/Myanmar used to live most of her life under house arrest. But now, she's working together with the guys who have been a bunch of thugs once. There's no need to forget about what happened but you have to try to forget harbor resentment and forgive.

General Mutu Saipo ended the World’s Longest-Running, 60 years old Civil War on 12, January 2012. These following four cornerstones of Saw Ba U Gyi never meant to collapse in Burma/Myanmar.
1. For us surrender is out of the question
2. The recognition of Karen State must be complete
3. We shall retain our arms
4. We shall decide our own political destiny.
But Mutu Saipo made a correct decision when and where necessary.

There’re almost non political prisoners in Burma/Myanmar today.

Most of Burmese/Myanmar people believe there’ll be soon enough to stop flaring in Northern Burma/Myanmar state.

Migration of Burmese/Myanmar and Cambodian to Thailand is many issues in both countries. Burma/Myanmar was systematically destroyed by military coup over 50 years since 1962. Things need to study is what happened in Cambodia on July 5-6, 1997? And what happened in Burma on Mar. 1962, Nov. 1974, Aug. 1988 and Sep. 2007?  In 1950-60, Bangkokian used to go Rangoon/Yangon to shopping. Even Singaporeans wanted to have University like in Burma/Myanmar. Now over two millions of poor Burmese/Myanmar are working 3D jobs in here excluding over 640,000 refugees in border camps.

Back in 2010, one of the professors in Western country told me the reason about Thai people are getting rich eventually is that its’ neighboring countries around have their own civil wars and Thailand hasn’t it. Thai people are using the phrase "land of the free" because Thailand has never been colonized by western countries. Trimming GDP growth will high enough definitely and University of the Thai Chamber of Commerce (UTTC) estimated on Thursday the overall economic damage will be 20 to 40 billion baht.

“I would like to see peace process in Thailand as soon as possible.” This is the piece of wisdom I have heard in 2014 New Year night from my closed friend who have been living in Thailand over seventeen years and he also would like to make at least something good for this country. Perhaps the title of this article sounds like an arrogant little infant but Thailand absolutely needs this to renew political stability.

As my Thai friend said, “making enemies with Lao-Thais is the worst thing to get a vote and who knows? Maybe I’m right, if these color war is looping, I want to say my people simply, “Let’s meet in Yangon happily.” 


By, Mr. Aung Than Oo (Secretary of ONSOB)
OVERSEA NATIONAL STUDENTS’ ORGANIZATION OF BURMA –ONSOB BANGKOK, THAILAND




 References:
1. http://www.tugofwar.co.uk/3078/index.html
2. Elections No Fix for Thailand’s Political Problems By Tim LaRocco, December 21, 2013
3. Amid protests, Thailand's PM Yingluck Shinawatra dissolves parliament,
    By Kocha Olarn, CNN, December
4. A Cease-Fire in Burma, By Hannah Beech Jan. 12, 2012
5. Is the World’s Longest-Running Civil War About to End?
    By Charlie Campbell @charliecamp6ellNov. 06, 2013
6. UTCC: Shutdown will trim GDP growth, Bangkok Post, Published: 9 Jan 2014 at 16.25
7. Cambodia: July 1997: Shock and Aftermath by Brad Adams
8. 10 questions: What's behind the protests in Thailand? By Jethro Mullen, CNN,
    November 27, 2013 -- Updated
9. Saw Ba U Gyi, Voices of the Revolution, By Paul Keenan
10. Them Ol'middle class Bangkokian blues, Published: 15 Dec 2013 at 00.00
     Newspaper section: News

Sunday, February 3, 2013

Peace Talks Slated Between Myanmar Rebels, Government


By SHIBANI MAHTANI And CELINE FERNANDEZ

YANGON, Myanmar—Embattled Kachin rebels and Myanmar's government are set to hold peace talks in China starting Monday, coordinators said, taking a step toward stopping weeks of intense fighting in one of the last and bloodiest ethnic conflicts in the country.

International pressure has been building on President Thein Sein to find a peaceful solution to the fighting, which had sharpened criticism that his quasi-civilian government was unable to rein in the long-powerful military, despite increasing international support for his liberalizing political and economic reforms aimed at rebuilding the country after decades of military dictatorship.

The Kachin Independence Organization acceded to the talks a week after its forces, the Kachin Independence Army, lost several strategic posts that opened the way to their headquarters town of Laiza to government forces. The military pulled up short of launching an all-out assault on the town and the fighting has tapered off over the past week.

The Myanmar military, which had used jets and helicopters gunships in its weekslong assault on the rebels, had previously declared a unilateral cease-fire last month but the fighting had continued.

The talks were scheduled for Monday at the town of Ruili, inside the Chinese border about four hours traveling from Laiza. The Myanmar Peace Center, a government body that coordinates peace talks between the government and the country's myriad ethnic rebel groups, said that the negotiators for both sides were already in the town Sunday.

Peace Center officials said that China had helped bring the parties together in Ruili and said that Chinese officials would witness but not actually mediate the talks. Chinese officials weren't available late Sunday for comment.

Ye Htut, spokesman for Mr. Thein Sein, said Sunday that he wouldn't comment on China's role or other aspects of the talks since the process was continuing. But Beijing, which has strategic economic interests in Myanmar including oil and gas pipelines under construction, had repeatedly called for a halt to the fighting after stray bombs struck its territory.

Both sides have said in recent days they won't attack each other unless attacked. The Kachin Independence Organization's statement Friday said its forces would "not undertake military activities that may cause problems" if government forces stop their offensives.

In a speech broadcast on national radio on Friday, Mr. Thein Sein said Myanmar needs "to place a special focus on political stability, internal stability and national unity" for reform efforts to succeed. He said the peace process has reached a "delicate and sensitive stage."

The U.S., which showed its support for Mr. Thein Sein's reforms when President Barack Obama visited in November, has said that it was "deeply troubled" by the conflict.

Conflict resumed between the Kachin rebels, who desire greater autonomy, and the military in late 2011 after a 17-year cease-fire. Myanmar has been beset by rebellion among its ethnic minorities for decades and central authorities have long viewed them as a threat to stability.

The previous military government had eventually reached peace agreements with most of the rebel groups. The Kachins are the last major group still fighting.

Saturday, February 2, 2013

Aung San Suu Kyi reveals she read Harry Potter books under house arrest


 Burma Suu Kyi Harry Potter
Burma opposition icon Aung San Suu Kyi speaks at the Irrawaddy Literary festival press conference at Inya Lake hotel in Yangon, where she said she took inspiration from Harry Potter's courage while under house arrest. Picture: AFP / Soe Than WIN Source: AFP

DEMOCRACY champion Aung San Suu Kyi has revealed her love of JK Rowling's Harry Potter books.

Ms Suu Kyi waxed lyrical about her favourite reads at Burma's first international literary festival.

The Nobel laureate, who spent years under house arrest under Burma's former junta, joked that her "courage" in the face of state repression paled in comparison to the heroes of the best-selling fantasy series.

"I have to admit to you I read all the Harry Potter books," she said to chuckles from an audience at the Irrawaddy Literary Festival in Yangon.

"I really don't know how I could ever have been brave enough to do all the things those children did... so when people talk about my courage, I think to myself 'they don't know anything about Harry Potter'."

The Burmese opposition leader said George Eliot and Victor Hugo were among her favourite authors, also revealing that she devours detective novels, which help her work out "who is going to profit from a particular crime... and what people are up to" - two "very good messages for politicians".

Organisers say they want the festival to exploit Burma's new freedoms to encourage bolder writing and debate.

Authors have hailed the three-day event as a breakthrough for creativity after years lost to stifling censorship rules under the generals who ruled the country for decades but were replaced by a nominally-civilian government in 2011.

Source: News. Com. Au 

Copper Mine Controversy Tests Burma’s Leaders

Burmese protesters at their camp at a Chinese-backed copper mine, Monywa Burma, November 22, 2012. (VOA Burmese Service) 

Daniel Schearf
February 01, 2013
  
BANGKOK — Burma is overdue to release a report on a controversial copper mine backed by the military and China but facing strong opposition. Rights activists say the investigation into the mine is a test of the new government and of democracy leader Aung San Suu Kyi, who was appointed head of the commission looking into the copper deal. 

The commission appointed by Burma's president to examine the Letpadaung copper mine was due to release its findings by January 31. But the date came and went without a report or immediate explanation on how the investigation into the central Burma project was proceeding. 

Burma’s largest copper mine is run by a Chinese company in cooperation with the Burmese military-owned Union of Myanmar Economic Holdings Company Limited (UMEHL). Their plan for a $1 billion expansion came up against protests from local villagers who say they were unfairly compensated and are worried about the environmental impact. 

Late last year, a months-long demonstration was violently dispersed by police.

Thein Than Oo, head of the Legal Committee at the Burma Lawyer's Network, says they uncovered evidence the police fired canisters of white phosphorus, a powerful incendiary, to break up the protest.

"They want to warn the whole entire people that don't touch…M-E-H-L.  This is a matter of business.  It is untouchable.  And, second, is to intimidate people," he said.

Thein Than Oo says they want to know who ordered the police action, as some suspect members of the military may be involved. 

Despite the controversy over the crackdown, it is unclear if Aung San Suu Kyi’s commission even has a mandate to investigate it.

David Mathieson, an Asia researcher with Human Rights Watch, says this investigation is new territory for Burma's civilian-led government.

"The protest and the crackdown on the protest, and all the other issues around Letpadaung and the copper mine, they're serious enough as it is.  But, this is also a very important test case in how the authorities handle peaceful protests and land rights issues and how the authorities deal with it.  So, I think it has great symbolic importance," he said.

The copper mine deal between the Chinese company and Burma's military was struck during military rule and is criticized for a lack of transparency.

Aung San Suu Kyi has already weighed in on the dispute, saying that although the rights of villagers need to be protected, Burma also needs to honor its agreements with foreign companies.

Mathieson says the commission's report is also a test case of Aung San Suu Kyi as a politician.

"As someone not just has to be involved in investigating a very serious incident but in actually bringing along different members of the political kaleidoscope with her.  So, I think we're really going to see how effective she is as a political leader through this exercise," he said.

NLD spokesman Nyan Win says when the report is finally released it should indicate how Aung San Suu Kyi handles the competing pressures.

"We should wait and see [the] final report, what pressure, and what she can do for the benefit of the Letpadaung area people," said Nyan Win.

Meanwhile, Burmese media reports this week indicate protests have continued near the mine. China’s ambassador to Burma also weighed in on the issue this week in meetings with the minister of mines.

A statement by China's Embassy says the ambassador expressed hope that Burma would earnestly protect China's business interests and help resolve any outstanding problems. 

Source: VOA News 

Monday, January 28, 2013

US Announces End of Resettlement Program


  US Ambassador to Thailand David Robinson speaks to refugees at the Mae La camp on Jan. 25, 2013. (Photo: Saw Eh Kler)
US Ambassador David Robinson speaks to refugees at the Mae La camp on Jan. 25, 2013. (Photo: Saw Eh Kler)
David Robinson, the US principal deputy assistant secretary of state in the Bureau of Population, Refugees and Migration, visited the Mae Lae refugee camp on Friday to announce plans to discontinue the US resettlement program for refugees from Burma within the next 120 days.
Robinson said the reason for the move was that the US had reached its quota of refugees from Burma.
Saw Eh Kler, the secretary 1 of the Mae La camp, said after meeting with the ambassador that refugees holding UN registration cards can still apply for resettlement to the US for the next 120 days, starting from today.
Mae La is home to more than 40,000 refugees, and is the largest of nine camps on Thai-Burmese border, which house a total of around 140,000 refugees displaced by decades of conflict in Burma.
Robinson will travel to other camps along the border over the next few days to make the announcement about the end of the US resettlement program, which began in 2005.
The US is one of several countries participating in the program, which according to the Thai-Burma Border Consortium (TBBC) has so far resettled 70,000 refugees to the US, Canada, Australia and several European countries.
According to the TBBC, which has coordinated support for the camps for more than two decades, more than half of the resettled refugees have moved to the US. The other participating countries are expected to continue accepting new applicants for the program.
Although Robinson did not not cite political changes inside Burma, including recent ceasefires reached with ethnic armed groups based along the border, in the decision to discontinue US involvement in the program, some refugees said they suspected that this played a part in the move.
Saw Htun Htun, who once chaired a committee overseeing the Mae La refugee camp, said that if that really was the reason for ending the program, it reflected a poor understanding of the current situation.
“No matter how much the international community praises Burma, the rulers are still mostly people who served in the former military government. So I don’t think they will hand over power easily to a genuine civilian government,” he said.
“I think the peace process in Burma will take a very long time. That’s why, for the sake of my family’s future, I decided to resettle in a third country,” he added.

By SAW YAN NAING / THE IRRAWADDY| January 25, 2013 
Source: Irrawaddy

၂၀၁၃ ခုႏွစ္၊ ဇြန္လတြင္ ျမန္မာဒုကၡသည္မ်ား ေခၚယူေရး အေမရိကန္ ရပ္ဆိုင္းမည္

၂၀၁၃ ခုႏွစ္၊ ဇြန္လတြင္ ျမန္မာဒုကၡသည္မ်ား ေခၚယူေရး အေမရိကန္ ရပ္ဆိုင္းမည္
ဇန္နဝါရီလ ၂၅ ရက္၊ ၂၀၁၃ခုႏွစ္။ ဖိုးခြါးေလး (ေကအိုင္စီ)

ယခု ၂၀၁၃ခုႏွစ္၊ ဇြန္လ ၅ရက္ေန႔တြင္ ျမန္မာဒုကၡသည္မ်ား ေခၚယူေရးကိစၥ ရပ္ဆိုင္းေတာ့မည္ဟု ထိုင္း-ျမန္မာနယ္စပ္ မယ္လဒုကၡသည္စခန္းမ်ားတြင္ ေရာက္ရွိေနသည့္ ဒုကၡသည္မ်ားဆိုင္ရာ အေမရိကန္ အႀကီးအကဲ (Principal Deputy Assistant Secretary for Bureau of population refugees and migration US Department of state) ေဒးဗစ္ေရာဘင္ဆန္ (Mr.David Robinson)က ယေန႔ ေျပာၾကားလိုက္သည္။

ဒုကၡသည္မ်ားအား ေခၚယူျခင္းႏွင့္ပတ္သက္၍ အေမရိကန္ႏိုင္ငံတခုတည္းသာ ရပ္ဆိုင္းလိုက္ျခင္းျဖစ္သည္ဟု ေဒးဗစ္ေရာဘင္ဆန္ ေျပာဆိုခဲ့ေၾကာင္း မယ္လစခန္း ဒု-ဥကၠဌ ေစာသာကဲက ေကအိုင္စီသို႔ ယခုလို ျပန္လည္ေျပာဆိုသည္။

“သူလာရတဲ့ အေၾကာင္းကေတာ့ ဒုကၡသည္ေတြကို အသိလာေပးတဲ့သေဘာပဲ။ ဒါဟာ အေမရိကန္ႏိုင္ငံတႏုိင္ငံအတြက္ပဲ သူ လာေျပာသြားတာျဖစ္တယ္။ က်န္ႏုိင္ငံေတြကေတာ့ မဆိုင္ဘူး။ ဒီေန႔ကေန ဇြန္လ ၅ ရက္ေန႔အထိ အေမရိကန္ႏိုင္ငံ သြားလိုသူaတြကို နာမည္စာရင္းလာေပးရမယ္။ ေနာက္ဆိုရင္ မလက္ခံေတာ့ဘူး။ စာရင္းပိတ္ေတာ့မယ္ေပါ့” ဟု ေစာသာကဲက ေျပာသည္။

ထို႔အျပင္ အေမရိကႏုိင္ငံသို႔ သြားေရာက္အေျခခ်လိုသည့္ ဒုကၡသည္မ်ားသည္ နာမည္စာရင္းလာသြင္းပါက ကုလသမဂၢ ဒုကၡသည္မ်ားဆိုင္ရာမဟာမင္းႀကီး႐ံုး (UNHCR) မွ အသိအမွတ္ျပဳလက္မွတ္ ကိုင္ေဆာင္ထားေသာသူျဖစ္ၿပီး UNCHR မွ တရား၀င္ ဒုကၡသည္အျဖစ္ အသိအမွတ္ျပဳ မခံရေသးသည့္ PAB လက္မွတ္ကိုင္ေဆာင္ထားသည့္ ဒုကၡသည္မ်ား မပါ၀င္ေၾကာင္း သိရသည္။

သို႔ေသာ္ PAB လက္မွတ္ကိုင္ေဆာင္ထားသူ ဒုကၡသည္မ်ားအတြက္ နာမည္စာရင္း ျပန္လည္စိစစ္ၿပီး အသိအမွတ္ျပဳလက္မွတ္ ျပန္လည္လုပ္ေပးသင့္မသင့္ကို UNHCR အေနျဖင့္ ျပန္လည္ျပဳလုပ္ေပးသြားရန္ ရွိေၾကာင္းလည္း ေစာသာကဲက ျဖည့္စြက္ေျပာဆိုသည္။

ဆက္လက္၍ စခန္းအတြင္းရိွ ဒုကၡသည္လက္မွတ္မရိွေသာ လူသစ္မ်ားအား အေမရိကန္ႏုိင္ငံသို႔ သြားေရာက္အေျခခ်ႏိုင္မည့္ အခြင့္အလမ္းမရိွသလို ၎ႏုိင္ငံအေနျဖင့္လည္း လက္ခံသြားမည့္ အစီအစဥ္ ရိွေတာ့မည္မဟုတ္ေၾကာင္း သိရသည္။

ဒုကၡသည္အသိအမွတ္ျပဳလက္မွတ္ မရွိေသးသူ မယ္လစခန္းေန ေအာင္ခိုင္ထြန္းက “က်ေနာ္တို႔ကေတာ့ ျဖစ္ႏုိင္ရင္ လူေဟာင္းအျဖစ္ အခြင့္အေရးရခ်င္တယ္။ အခု လာရွင္းျပတာက လူသစ္အတြက္ ဘာမွေျပာသြားတာ မရိွဘူး။ တကယ္လို႔ မသြားျဖစ္လည္း ျမန္မာႏိုင္ငံကိုေတာ့ ျပန္မွာမဟုတ္ဘူး။ သူတို႔စီစဥ္တဲ့အတိုင္း၊ ထားတဲ့အတိုင္း ေနသြားမယ္” ဟု ေျပာသည္။

အေမရိကန္ႏုိင္ငံသို႔ သြားေရာက္ခိုလံႈခြင့္ ရက္သတ္မွတ္လိုက္သည္ႏွင့္ ပတ္သက္၍ ယေန႔မနက္တြင္ မယ္လစခန္း ေဘာလံုးကြင္း၌ ဒုကၡသည္မ်ားအား လာေရာက္ရွင္းလင္းေျပာဆိုရာတြင္ US Embassy, UNHCR, IOM ႏွင့္ RSC ကိုယ္စားလွယ္မ်ားလည္း ပါ၀င္သည္။

ယခုလ ဇန္န၀ါရီ ၁၆ ရက္ေန႔ကလည္း ထိုင္းႏိုင္ငံ ျပည္ထဲေရးဝန္ႀကီး (ႏုိင္က်ာ႐ုဖုန္ ေရယန္ဆုဝမ္)က မယ္လဒုကၡသည္စခန္းအတြင္း ဒုကၡသည္၏ အေျခအေနမ်ားကို လာေရာက္ေလ့လာခဲ့ၿပီး ထိုင္းအစိုးရအေနျဖင့္ ဒုကၡသည္မ်ားကို အတင္းျပန္ခိုင္းမည္မဟုတ္ေၾကာင္း ေျပာဆိုသြားခဲ့သည္။

ထိုင္း-ျမန္မာနယ္စပ္တြင္ မယ္လ၊ မယ္ရာမို၊ မယ္လအူး၊ ႏို႔ဖိုး၊ အုန္းဖ်န္၊ ဘန္႔ဒံုယမ္းႏွင့္ ထမ္းဟင္ စသည့္ UNHCR မွ အသိအမွတ္ျပဳထားေသာ ကရင္ဒုကၡသည္စခန္း ၇ ခုရွိၿပီး ၂၀၀၆ခုႏွစ္မွစ၍ အေမရိကန္ျပည္ေထာင္စုအစိုးရက ဒုကၡသည္မ်ားကို ၎တို႔ ႏိုင္ငံသို႔ သြားေရာက္အေျခခ်ေနထိုင္ရန္ ေခၚယူခဲ့ျခင္း ျဖစ္သည္။

ထို႔အျပင္ အဆိုပါဒုကၡသည္စခန္းမ်ားရွိ ျမန္မာဒုကၡသည္မ်ားကို အေမရိကန္အျပင္ ၾသစေၾတးလ်ား၊ ကေနဒါ၊ အဂၤလန္၊ ေနာ္ေ၀၊ ဆြီဒင္၊ နယ္သာလန္၊ ဖင္လန္၊ နယူးဇီလန္၊ ဘယ္လ္ဂ်ီယံႏွင့္ ဂ်ပန္ႏိုင္ငံမ်ားမွလည္း ေခၚယူလ်က္ရွိသည္။
  

Monday, January 21, 2013

Myanmar rebels accuse army of flouting ceasefire


Published: 20 Jan 2013 at 19.45
Online news: Asia 
Kachin ethnic minority rebels in war-torn northern Myanmar accused the military of launching a fresh attack Sunday, just days after a ceasefire pledge by the country's reformist government.
A soldier from the All Burma Students Democratic Front - Northern Burma , an ally of the Kachin Independence Army, looks out from an outpost on the Laja Yang frontline, some 10 kilometres south of Laiza in Kachin state, on September 22, 2012. Kachin rebels in northern Myanmar accused the military of launching a fresh attack Sunday, days after a ceasefire pledge by the country's government.
The clashes came despite a new offer by President Thein Sein of peace talks to end Myanmar's last active civil war, which has marred widespread optimism about the regime's dramatic political reforms.
"They're still fighting," said James Lum Dau, the Thailand-based spokesman for the Kachin Independence Organisation (KIO), the political wing of the rebel Kachin Independence Army (KIA).
He said the military was battling to retake control of a strategically important hilltop just several kilometres away from the KIA headquarters in Laiza, and was using artillery shells and ground forces.
"They want to take all their artillery on the hilltop and then they will immediately do something to occupy Laiza," he said.
Witnesses reported seeing hundreds of government troops involved in the operation.
The government announced on Friday that it would end a military offensive against the Kachin rebels with effect from Saturday morning, but within hours the KIA reported coming under fire again.
The government pledge came amid growing international concern about the use of air strikes in the conflict, although there have been no reports of further air raids since its ceasefire vow.
The Kachin rebels have not announced any ceasefire of their own, saying the regime is just trying to deflect international criticism. They say any negotiations should also address their demands for greater political rights.
In a speech to local civil society groups in Rangoon on Sunday, Thein Sein said the military was trying to be patient with the rebels. He said his government was ready to hold peace talks with the Kachin.
"The Laiza headquarters of the KIO/KIA is within just an arm's reach of our government's army. But I already commanded the army not to wipe out the headquarters of the KIO/KIA. This is evidence that our government army wants genuine peace," the former general said.
"Based on international experience, it usually takes decades to build peace. During that time, clashes often flare up and down. But we will solve the problem at the table without betraying the peace process," he added.
Tens of thousands of people have been displaced in Kachin state since June 2011, when a 17-year ceasefire between the government and the KIA broke down.
The total number of casualties is unknown, but the government said Friday that 35 soldiers had been killed and 190 injured in a series of ambushes by the rebels since 2011.
The KIA said last week that three civilians were killed in an artillery attack by the military on Laiza. The government denied the allegations.
Myanmar's quasi-civilian government has reached tentative ceasefires with a number of major ethnic rebel groups since taking power in early 2011, but several rounds of talks with Kachin rebels have shown little progress.
"We are still trying for both sides to meet," said local businessman and peace negotiator Yup Zaw Hkaung, who confirmed the fighting was still ongoing.
State media said Sunday a government peace committee had sent a new invitation to the KIO to hold peace talks. There was no immediate response.

Source: Bangkok Post